Review of Kenneth Richard Samples, 7 Truths That Changed the World: Discovering Christianity’s Most Dangerous Ideas

7 Truths that Changed the World: Discovering Christianity’s Most Dangerous Ideas, by Kenneth Richard Samples (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2012).  Pp. 238.  Reviewed by John A. Battle.

Kenneth Samples, a Christian apologist specializing in philosophy and theology, distills a lifetime of interaction with other belief systems in his new book, 7 Truths that Changed the World.  The Christian religion appears in our world in a variety of forms, but certain central truths set it apart from all other belief systems.  Samples does an excellent job identifying and explaining these truths.

The book’s subtitle describes each of these truths as “dangerous.”  At first I thought that this word was not the best one to use, but perhaps was chosen to boost sales.  It seemed to be a take-off from Alister McGrath’s recent book Christianity’s Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution—A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First.  In McGrath’s study, Protestantism was “dangerous” because its main idea, that the individual Christian needs to study and obey the Bible for himself, would lead to a fragmentation of the movement.  This indeed happened, and the Roman Catholic Church was quick to point out the disunited state of Protestant churches.  However, McGrath sees this state of affairs as actually good and beneficial for the Christian church in the long run.

After thinking about Samples’s book more, I came to the conclusion that “dangerous” is an appropriate word for him to use as well, even though it is used in a different sense.  These seven great Christian truths are dangerous to all the other belief systems, and set Christianity apart as a distinct, opposed in important ways to all the other systems.  Not only is Christianity dangerous to the other systems (for example, it virtually replaced paganism in the Roman Empire), but it thereby is dangerous to individual Christians, who will face opposition from those who are loyal to those systems.  It is not without reason that about 80% of religious persecution in the modern world is directed against Christians.

It would easy to find seven teachings of Christianity that are unique—there are scores of them—but Samples succeeds in finding seven that are foundational.  These seven lie at the center of all philosophies and religions.  The book offers two chapters of comprehensive discussion of each of them:

  1. “Not All Dead Men Stay Dead” (the physical resurrection of Jesus and all humans)
  2. “God Walked the Earth” (the Incarnation: Jesus the God-man)
  3. “A Fine-Tuned Cosmos with a Beginning” (the creation of the spatial-temporal universe from nothing and its careful preparation for us by a loving Creator)
  4. “Clear Pointers to God” (evidences for God’s existence and character shown in the creation and the nature of humanity)
  5. “Not by Works” (the necessity and possibility of our salvation by God’s grace alone, revealed in Christ)
  6. “Humanity’s Value and Dignity” (humans made in God’s image, the most valuable of God’s creatures, with capacity for great evil, and great virtue)
  7. “The Good in Suffering” (how evil, both natural and moral, fits with a good and powerful God, and the ultimate aim of the universe)

Given the limited size of the book, the amount of useful material is remarkable.  Arguments are stated concisely, and are thoughtfully arranged.  Ample endnotes provide more detailed discussions from excellent sources.  The suggested readings and discussion questions at the end of each chapter would be quite useful for group study in a class or Bible study group.  This book could be used also in a campus club or discussion with both Christian and non-Christian participants.

I found this book by Ken Samples enjoyable to read, well organized, and filled with helpful thoughts and sources.  Reading it should make one more comfortable believing the Christian teachings and more competent and confident in bearing witness to a skeptical world.

Review of Paul’s Letter to the Philippians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, by Ben Witherington III

Review of Paul’s Letter to the Philippians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, by Ben Witherington III

by Jason Anspach (M.Div., WRS)

Ben Witherington III, Amos Professor of New Testament at Asbury Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky, finished his series of commentaries on the New Testament with his treatment of Philippians.

Witherington focuses his interpretation on a number of standard commentary paths. He surveys existing commentaries and provide exegetical notes throughout. What sets Witherington’s work apart from other standard commentaries is his consideration of the social and rhetorical realities of Paul’s epistle.

Witherington examines the social custom of Philippi and sees a Roman colony where all things Roman are held in high esteem. Given Paul’s pattern of being all things in order to proclaim Christ, we should not easily overlook his willingness to employ Roman rhetoric and refer to Roman custom in reaching the people of Philippi.

By taking heed of this Witherington shows Philippians not to be an ordinary friendship or family letter addressed to a beloved congregation, but rather a nuanced oration to be read aloud and shared by those who were accustomed to such. Paul, a practiced speaker of the gospel, used his rhetorical abilities to communicate to the Philippians in the manner appreciated most by them – the Roman way. According to Witherington, “ Analyzing Philippians as deliberative rhetoric with some epideictic features allows the aims and purpose of this discourse to become increasingly clear: Paul wants the Philippians to continue embracing their Christian faith and model themselves on godly examples, especially the example of Christ himself, as Phil. 2 makes evident.”
Witherington also takes time to view the role of woman in Philippi as a means of understanding what the role if any the females mentioned in the letter may have had in the church.

Finally Witherington soundly puts to bed the notion that Philippians is a product of a number of contributions melded together by showing a rhetorical unity that could not be achieved through a copy and paste approach.

This commentary is helpful in appreciating the subtleties of the epistle to the Philippians. It breathes a fresh perspective into the letter as the reader is able to see what was communicated through the original hearer’s eyes. Witherington’s commentary is conservative, and does not shy away from engaging liberal academic assertions where he sees contrary evidence or accepting solid beneficial work from scholars he would not otherwise agree with.

5/5 stars

OLDEST COPY OF A PORTION OF MARK’S GOSPEL DISCOVERED

Daniel B. Wallace

New Testament scholar Daniel Wallace explained the discovery of a first century fragment from Mark’s Gospel in this interview.  This copy of Mark was made before A.D. 100, the earliest New Testament fragment discovered yet!

Review of Douglas Bond, “The Mighty Weakness of John Knox”

Review of Douglas Bond, “The Mighty Weakness of John Knox”

by Douglas Bond

The Mighty Weakness of John Knox, by Douglas Bond (Orlando, Florida: Reformation Trust Publishing, 2011).  Pp. 152.  Reviewed by John A. Battle.

Many Christian people in America, and even in Scotland, have not heard of John Knox.  Or if they have, they know him only as a “fiery Scottish reformer” who preached damnation sermons and bullied the lovely Mary, Queen of Scots.  Little admired or even noticed in his native Scotland—his tomb lies under a paved parking lot—John Knox is fading from the national memory.  And largely ignored by the Presbyterian churches of the world, even though he is considered the father of Presbyterianism, John Knox, when he is remembered, is pictured as an embarrassing “odd uncle,” a frightfully bigoted and unpleasant fellow who doesn’t at all fit in with our enlightened and ecumenical environment.

Is it fair that we are relegating Knox to a dusty bookshelf of history, or are we missing something very important?  Douglas Bond has done us all a favor by bringing this sixteenth century reformer into the light for us to see.  Unlike the common misconception, Knox was not a fire-breathing, insensitive bully.  Rather, he was small, naturally timid, and totally lacking in self-confidence.  Yet, he managed to lead the Reformation of the church in Scotland and to establish the Presbyterian system there, from where it spread to many countries around the world.

Knox himself led a most varied and exciting life, full of danger, suffering, conflict, and fame.  As in many other books on Knox, Bond outlines the major events in Knox’s life.  From his early conversion to the Protestant cause Knox aligned himself with Reformed leaders, starting with George Wishart, carrying a claymore to defend him while he preached.  After Wishart was burned at the stake, Knox joined a group of Protestants holed up in a castle in St. Andrews and became their preacher.  French warships attacked and captured the garrison, making Knox a galley slave.  Knox rowed, chained to the oar, for nineteen months before being released.  After serving in various places in England, Knox had to flee to Geneva during the reign of “Bloody” Mary Tudor; he stayed there six years.  In Geneva Knox became the pastor of the English-speaking Reformed congregation there and grew in his knowledge and maturity under the leadership of John Calvin.

When Mary Tudor died it was safe for Knox and other Protestants to return.  He traveled throughout Scotland, preaching and promoting reformed theology and a presbyterian type of church government free from control by the monarch.  In spite of threats he continued to preach and became the leader of the Protestants in Scotland.  A short time later the Scottish parliament voted to adopt the Reformed faith and to establish the system of church government Knox taught.  During the following twelve years Knox continued his fearless preaching and refused to compromise with the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots.  By the time of his death in 1572, Scotland was firmly Presbyterian, and has remained so, at least in name, until this day.

Interesting and engaging as Knox’s life is, what makes Bond’s account unique is his detailed analysis of the personality of Knox.  Unlike the more public and confrontational Luther, Knox did not seek out this open controversy, nor did he believe himself equal to the forces arrayed against him.  As Bond demonstrates most forcefully, Knox recognized his own weakness.  He sought his strength from God and relied heavily on God’s power and providence—hence the title of the book,The Mighty Weakness of John Knox.  As God said to Paul “My power is made perfect in weakness” (2 Corinthians 12:9), so God used Knox powerfully because Knox knew his own weakness.

Bond organizes his analysis of the power of Knox’s personal weaknesses and his consequent reliance on God’s power in four chapters: his submission to Christ, his life of prayer, his preaching, and his writing.  In three chapters he reflects on the sources of Knox’s strength in God—the power of the doctrine of predestination, the divine pattern of empowering the weak, and the legacy of strength left to us who follow.  These seven chapters are the heart of the book, and they provide a mighty “sermon” to us, a tremendous encouragement to follow all that is best in Knox’s example.

The book concludes with a helpful time line of important Reformation events and events in Knox’s life and with a full printing of the Scots Confession of Faith, written by Knox and others.  Endnotes, a bibliography, and an index complete the volume.

The Mighty Weakness of John Knox is a small volume, but very rich in inspiration as well as in historical acumen.  I recommend it for anyone interested in Reformation history, especially for Presbyterians.  As a high school teacher, Douglas Bond communicates well with young people, and this book is especially useful for young people seeking to make their lives count for the Lord.

Bible-Reading Plan Now Also in SPANISH!

Read the Bible in a year, in chronological order and with each day’s reading being about the same length (20 minutes average).  The Plan can be printed out on a single sheet of paper, front and back, and used for a bookmark.  Now in SPANISH as well as ENGLISH.

Download PLAN

Review of John C. Lennox,
"God’s Undertaker"

Review of John C. Lennox, <br/>"God’s Undertaker"

By John C. Lennox

God’s Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?, by John C. Lennox (Oxford: Lion, 2009).  Pp. 224.  Reviewed by John A. Battle.

The first time I heard of John Lennox was listening online to his debate against Richard Dawkins.  Not only was he able to stand up to Dawkins’s arguments, but he concluded with a sterling appeal to the resurrection of Jesus Christ as the final proof that God exists and has revealed himself to us.  Dawkins responded that he was “disappointed” that Lennox would bring that matter up in a scientific debate, but I was encouraged. Later, hearing Lennox in person speaking in Washington State, I was further impressed by his knowledge, fluency, and ability to explain complex ideas to a popular audience.

John Lennox is Professor in Mathematics in Oxford and Fellow in Mathematics and the Philosophy of Science at Green Templeton College.  In addition to being a leading mathematician and philosopher of science, Lennox is a committed Christian and an outspoken apologist.  In addition to debating famous atheists like Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens, Lennox speaks to popular audiences to encourage their faith in God and the biblical revelation.

This recent book presents a strong case for God as the intelligent, powerful Creator of the universe.  As an expert in mathematics, including probability and chaos theory, Lennox analyzes and explains the fine tuning of the physical forces and constants of the universe, and the information richness of the genetic code. These facts point to intelligent input. Lennox does not “argue from analogy, but [makes] an inference to the best explanation” (p. 175).  This is not a “god of the gaps” argument, where, as science progresses, the need for “god” shrinks.  Rather, it is an “atheism of the gaps” argument, as each new scientific advance provides more, not less, evidence for a divine, intelligent Creator.

The book surveys the major areas of debate—the origin and design of the universe, the origin of life, the origin of the major types of life, and the information-rich content of the genetic code.  In each of these areas Lennox documents his statements well, citing leaders in each field.  He selects the strongest, not the weakest, argument of his opponents and treats them fairly.  In all these diverse subject areas, he emphasizes the issues that relate to his own strength and expertise.

Near the end of his book Lennox discusses the philosophical contribution of David Hume, who supposedly destroyed the argument for God based on the design found in various creatures.  These pages summarize and state well the fallacy of Hume, and the emptiness of modern arguments by atheists who quote him.

This book is fun to read, even though sometimes the reading is heavy.  I recommend it to all who desire to argue for the existence and work of the God of the Bible. It also is helpful to all Christians who have feared that their beliefs somehow are unscientific or unreasonable.

Review of Hoffmeier,
"The Archaeology of the Bible"

Review of Hoffmeier, <br/>"The Archaeology of the Bible"

By James K. Hoffmeier

The Archaeology of the Bible, by James K. Hoffmeier (Oxford: Lion Hudson, 2008). Pp. 191. Reviewed by John A. Battle.

If you’re looking for an attractive, well balanced survey of biblical archaeology by a recognized expert, this volume would serve your purpose well.  James Hoffmeier is an experienced archaeologist, specializing in the region of Egypt where the Israelites lived and through which they traversed to the Holy Land.  Hoffmeier, unlike many modern “minimalists,” takes historical texts seriously, whether from the Bible or from Egyptian or other sources.  While he teaches at a Christian institution and holds to an evangelical view of the Bible, he openly points out where the biblical record is strongly attested by archaeology and where that record has difficulties.  He makes it clear that we do not presently have all the data, and probably never will; therefore, he says, we need to suspend judgment in some cases.

The book is well organized with an introduction to archaeology and its practice in the biblical lands.  He then goes chronologically through the major periods of Israel’s history and the times of the early church, showing the important archaeological discoveries that help to explain or illuminate the biblical text.  Since his specialty is in the archaeology of the Egyptian settlement and exodus of Israel, his contributions in these chapters are especially interesting.  He supports the so-called late date for the exodus.  The materials he includes for the study of the united and divided monarchy of Israel are especially strong and well illustrated.  The chapters on the New Testament trace the major locations and artifacts for the life of Jesus, the early Judean church, and the cities of Paul.  Since the book is fairly recent, it includes major recent discoveries
that further illumine the biblical narrative, including continuing debate on the Shroud of Turin and an interesting discussion on the disputed ossuary of James the brother of Jesus.

The Archaeology of the Bible is printed on high quality glossy paper, and the photography and graphics are excellent, making this book a good choice for a class or Bible study.  Hoffmeier manages to cover a lot of material in fewer than 200 pages, and consequently many items are mentioned without much detail.  This is a necessary tradeoff, and can be overcome by looking online for more details on any particular item.  A helpful index makes looking up any particular city or event or artifact easy.

I recommend this book for anyone interested in biblical history or archaeology, especially to see the broad sweep of archaeology’s contribution to the study of the Bible.

Review of McGrath,
"Christianity’s Dangerous Idea"

Review of McGrath,<br/>"Christianity’s Dangerous Idea"

by Alister McGrath

by John A. Battle

What, exactly, is the essence of Protestantism?  Alister McGrath, professor of historical theology at the University of Oxford, concludes this large work with his definition, Protestantism is more than a set of doctrines; it is a method of doing theology and the work of the church.  It is the dangerous idea that every individual Christian may go back to the original (Christ and the Bible) and reformulate, revise, and adapt the historic faith to fit his own culture and setting, to his own understanding.  Thus he titles his book Christianity’s Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution—A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First.

This pattern is observed in the original Protestant reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  Rather than a single united Protestant movement, it was a conglomeration of several different “Protestantisms” growing in various places, adapting patterns and thinking from those places.

While some Protestant traditions currently have “frozen” the positions of former generations, others have kept the method more open, and have adapted quickly to their settings.  This second group more consistently reflects the genius of Protestantism, according to McGrath.

The book is divided into three major sections.  The first section, “Origination,” traces the history of the Protestant movement from the early German, Swiss, French, and English Reformers, especially Luther and Calvin, through the challenges of European culture and history, to its expansion into America and the world up through the nineteenth century.  Necessarily, the survey is quick and often superficial.

The second section, “Manifestation,” surveys the primary beliefs and positions taken by Protestants.  Various chapters deal with theological views of the Bible, major teachings regarding man and salvation, the church and sacraments, the Christian’s relation to culture, politics, and society, and the way Protestantism has interacted with science and the arts.  Again, the book quickly summarizes these important and detailed points.  I think his discussion of Protestantism and science was especially helpful.  Since Protestants include such a wide variety views on these subjects, it is hard to determine a center for each.  McGrath sees unity more in the idea of the method of theology (individual judgment from Scripture) than in the results in each of these areas.

The final section, “Transformation,” emphasizes the more recent history of Protestantism in America and in the “Global South,” that is, the Southern Hemisphere.  Especially important is the development and tremendous growth of Pentecostalism, whose adherents now outnumber all other Protestants put together.  McGrath sees this development as a natural outcome of the genius of Protestantism—the reinterpretation of Scripture by each generation, adapted to its own time and place.  He sees a bright future for Protestantism, viewed as a method with a very narrow agreed-upon base of doctrine, even if the older denominations decrease and fade away.  Not only is Protestantism able to adapt doctrinally to new situations, but, perhaps even more helpfully, is able to adapt the structure and worship of the church to different times and cultures.  This capability, he believes, makes the future of Protestantism impossible to describe, but it makes its future existence and growth more probable.

McGrath writes well, and in spite of the book’s length and subject matter, it becomes a real page-turner.  The area he covers is vast, and even with his expertise as a historical theologian, he is not able to cover many details in a more than cursory fashion.  I believe his statements regarding the history of conservative Reformed theology (the area I work in) sometimes show a lack of deep understanding.  Some of his criticisms seem unjust.  Likewise, he often fails to distinguish what I would consider to be orthodox from heterodox ideas.  He includes all parts of the spectrum—liberal and conservative—as Protestantism, and treats all as equally authentic versions.  In my view this detracts from the usefulness of the book.  Of course, he views this historically, without making judgments on the rightness or wrongness of the various positions, only their pragmatic successes or failures.

Perhaps the greatest strength of the book is its wideness, and the abundance of references to more detailed works in the extensive endnotes.  Also important is his defense of the methodology of Protestantism, as an answer to the Catholic criticism that there is no central authoritative magisterium.

Christianity’s Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution—A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First, by Alister E. McGrath (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2007).  Pp. 552.

Review of David VanDrunen, "Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms"

by John A. Battle

            During the last few years a new controversy has come to conservative Reformed circles.  Historically Reformed and Presbyterian writers believed that secular nations should be ruled by natural law, which people can derive from nature, history, and conscience.  This law is basically the same as the “moral law,” the Ten Commandments, especially those commands regarding our duty to our fellow human beings.  According to these early writers, God rules over the nations of the world in his sovereignty, and holds them responsible to obey and uphold this natural law with the power of the sword.  Jesus, as the Son of God, is sovereign in this way, along with the Father and the Holy Spirit.

            On the other hand, earlier Reformed writers recognized Jesus Christ as sovereign over his special kingdom, the church.  The church is guided by the Bible as a whole, and enforces the will of Christ by its spiritual authority, not by physical force.  Jesus, as Messiah and Mediator of the new covenant, is sovereign over this second kingdom.

           According to this traditional understanding, the civil laws of the Old Testament were directed to national Israel under the theocracy.  They were not intended for the other nations, nor are they applicable today, except as they are tied to natural law.

            David VanDrunen believes that this traditional scheme is biblical and correct.  He further demonstrates in this book that this was the view of mainstream theology in the church, from the times of the church fathers, through the Middle Ages, through the Reformation times, and since then through the nineteenth century.

            However, in the last century many Reformed writers have attacked this position, and have taught in a single kingdom of Christ, denying the two kingdom and natural law teachings.  VanDrunen traces the main spokesmen and varying approaches of this movement, including Abraham Kuyper, Karl Barth, Herman Dooyeweerd, Cornelius Van Til, and other writers.  He sees two different lines of development from Van Til: Greg Bahnsen, who denies the two kingdoms and natural law, and Meredith G. Kline, who tends to support those teachings.

           VanDrunen’s book contains a wealth of footnotes to the scholarly literature, and represents a massive amount of study.  His collection and summation of the various writers’ positions seems accurate and well documented.  This book was not designed to support the doctrine biblically (another book of his that will attempt this task, Living in God’s Two Kingdoms: A Biblical Vision for Christianity and Culture, is due out later this year), but the passages and arguments quoted from many Reformed theologians and from Reformed and Presbyterian creeds certainly make his position formidable at the outset.

           One criticism I have is the poor writing style of the book, including unnecessary repetition.  A careful perusal of the classic Elements of Style by William Strunk and E. B. White would greatly aid the author in future works (of which I hope there will be many!).

Natural Law and the Two Kingdoms: A Study in the Development of Reformed Social Thought, by David VanDrunen (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2010).  Pp. 466.

Review of Fazale Rana, "The Cell’s Design"

Review of Fazale Rana, "The Cell’s Design"

The Cell’s Design: How Chemistry Reveals the Creator’s Artistry, by Fazale Rana (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2008).  Pp. 332.  Reviewed by John A. Battle.

During the last decades several books supporting Intelligent Design have appeared.  Their basic argument usually has been this—living components and structures are so complex and specified that they never could have appeared by mere chance.  Therefore, they must be the result of Intelligent Design.  This basically is a negative argument: there is no way to explain this apart from some divine intervention.

Critics call this the “God-of-the-gaps” argument.  If there is a gap in our knowledge, then God must account for what we see.  The obvious problem with the God-of-the-gaps argument is that similar gaps in the past often have shrunk and then disappeared as scientific knowledge has increased.  Now that natural causes are known, we no longer are required to use the “God” explanation.

Microbiologist Fazale Rana, an openly Christian scientific apologist, is keenly aware of this weakness in the traditional ID argument.  Yet, he also is aware of even greater positive evidence for design in living systems.  He seeks a positive argument from the data to design.

Recent science in cellular biology and chemistry has made astounding leaps and discoveries about the inner working of the basic building block of all life, the living cell.  All cells of plants and animals are basically the same in their components and method of operation.  Yet they are ideally suited in their differences for the different kinds of organisms and the different tasks the cells must perform within each organism.

Rather than starting from apparently inexplicable complexity, Rana starts from actual examples and types of human design.  Recently it has become apparent that the cell’s processes are largely mechanical and electrical, as the various proteins interact with each other within the cell.  This is biochemistry at its most basic level.  In the last few centuries humans have developed technology using these same forces on a larger scale.

Rana builds a positive argument, using “abductive reasoning.”  Wikipedia defines this type of reasoning as follows: “Abduction means determining the precondition.  It is using the conclusion and the rule to assume that the precondition could explain the conclusion.  Example: ‘When it rains, the grass gets wet.  The grass is wet, it must have rained.’  Diagnosticians and detectives are commonly associated with this style of reasoning.”  As the definition states, abduction is most useful when explaining why the present circumstance is the way it is.  This is the situation when we wonder about how living things got the way they are.

Rana’s argument is abductive rather than negative.  We see humans designing mechanical and electrical items all the time.  What thinking and processes do they go through when they design and manufacture these items?  The products they make are the actual fruits of design.  Rana describes many of these features of design in the main part of the book, taking one chapter for each main design feature.  He introduces the chapters with paintings by famous artists, each of which makes an interesting and pointed illustration of the design feature being discussed.  Along with mechanical and electrical design, Rana sees artistic expression as well in the cell’s workings (“the Creator’s artistry” is part of the subtitle of the book).

The heart of the book takes these various design features and shows how they are employed in the makeup and workings of every individual cell.  Cells show even more exquisite design and precision than the best human engineering and technology.  Rana writes for a mature reader who can take time and effort to learn some details of microbiology.  He explains these processes as clearly as possible for those of us not trained in biology.  There are many well drawn illustrations.  An introductory chapter helps a lot by explaining the basic parts and workings of the cell, and a glossary in the back is handy for checking the technical terms.  Many of the processes Rana describes are complicated, and sometimes are difficult to follow; but Rana’s explanations are as clear as can be expected in view of the complexity of the subject.  Sometimes I had to read a section several times before getting the main point, but the effort was worth it!

It will be interesting to see how The Cell’s Design will be received.  Will it simply be disregarded as a disguised ID or creationist work, or will evolutionary scholars interact with the actual positive examples of design?  Many think that the very idea of allowing the possibility of God’s design in creation denies the scientific method.  However, if God really exists, how can such a presupposed position lead to the truth about the cell’s design?  To follow the evidence, using sound logic, is the best way to reach the right conclusion.  Rana provides an excellent case for an intelligent, skilled, and artistic Creator.